Victorinus, adv. Arium 1. It was not only the incarnation of the second person that A. Words paraphrased here, cited not ad verbum , or differently inflected are italicized. The punctuation follows A. The in extenso citation of these central and moving texts has its effect. He did not. For a palmary study of this passage through A. Clearly echoed at Marrou, Saint Augustin et l'augustinisme [Paris, ], 84 for occurrences of these verses in A. Studer, RA 19 , , excellent on the importance of aequalitas in A. The Phil. Verwilghen Augustine quotes and echoes Phil.
Madec, RA 2 , The rhetorical strategy of this citation must be seen in the history of of Christian assimilation of philosophical doctrines marked at the same time by the insistence that they were originally Christian all along : see R. So here in Bk. Both halves of the quotation are applied to the Platonists explicitly at civ.
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See As Madec showed, this proof-text was useful against Manichees c. It played a notable part in his speculative theology trin. For its value in the healing of curiositas , see on When A.
Courcelle Recherches and Madec art. Courcelle sees an echo at quant. If that passage is not accepted as an echo, 26 the earliest is vera rel. But that work from the end of the Thagaste period already marks the development of A. After vera rel. This text and Jn. Philippians 2. G-M conventionally remark that this charge might not be as true of Plotinus as of his followers, adducing Porph. But the position of Plotinus can be taken both ways; for contrasting views, cf.
Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational Berkeley, , stoutly denying that Plotinus engaged in such conduct: for a similar position with less special pleading, see A. Fowden, The Egyptian Hermes Cambridge, , Aegyptium cibum : Gn. A link between several scriptural moments is provided by Ps. See on this passage Knauer , with rectification of earlier mistaken scholarly views. On Egypt as the home of idolatry, see also s. This is the most autobiographical sentence in the paragraph, for as a gentile A.
Folliet's note at BA Mai Here it gives him Pauline warrant for using non-Christian texts; he was not alone--cf. Athanasius incarn. Folliet, REAug 11 , Amb. The link to Rom. But if A. The notion of influence goes back to the Hellenistis Judaism, and was sometimes admitted by non-Christians A. The same argument is present in other works of Ambrose, but often only in fleeting mention e.
The error corrected by the retr. This weakest argument is regarded as sufficient by the doctiores. Courcelle, Les Confessions , develops it with equal literal-mindedness by noting that 8. Instead of opposing zoolatry, each one has been an initiate, or an interpreter, of Isiac mysteries. In a similar vein, see E. Gilson, Med. Henry, Plotin et l'Occident Louvain, 98 noting an analogy to Plotinus 6. Les Confessions and Recherches ed. All discussions of A. Courcelle's views are most concisely presented at Recherches , where he presents three passages-- 7. This schema highlights the parallels among these paragraphs, but imposes a structure that should not be taken as originating with A.
This paragraph 7. The following paragraphs 7. But that success leaves A. These events finally put A. As often, A. He gives in these pages high praise, both implicit and explicit, to Plotinian doctrines and practices, but at the same time he reserves for neo-Platonism criticism that is fundamental, irrefutable for him , and disqualifying. The theological diagnosis of his dissatisfaction failure to appreciate the doctrine of the incarnation: see on 7.
The echoes of Plotinian texts in these paragraphs have attracted much attention. Courcelle Recherches does not insist on more than Plotinus 1. But was the Ascent ever meant to be a permanent thing in Plotinus? Or was it inevitably partial, frustrated, and limited in duration? Plotinus 1.
There permanence of vision seems eschatological rather than imminent. Of no less importance, however, for understanding the exact purport of these paragraphs and their place in A. Hadot, Marius Victorinus Paris, , , adduces several passages later in conf. But there are numerous other pertinent texts, arranged here by subject:. Experience at Milan: beata v. Both these texts show A. Preparation for vision: sol. These texts indirectly reflect on the background both to this paragraph and to 7.
Each makes sense only when seen against the development that leads to it and 7. Defects of vision and see below : beata v. Later judgment of vision: On the opening page of trin. There the ascent is a possibility without authentic Christianity, but not destined for success: trin. The notion of divine initiative is certainly more Christian than Platonic n.
The first sentence of this paragraph, for example, has three different phrases for the divine initiative. Simone Weil claims somewhere that there is no case in the Gospels of human initiative but always the divine call. This is not quite true, but it captures a distinctive atmosphere alien to that of Plotinus.
Worin besteht die utilitas verborum signorum? Die Antwort Augustins--sie ist im ganzen Dialog [ mag. Die signa sind Warner und Mahner; ihre gnoseologische Funktion besteht in der commemoratio sensibilis des homo interior. Whether to attach the present passage to either divine person is questionable but cf.
See on 1. For the purposes of the present passage, of 7. Korger, RA 2, , and the note at BA The result can be dramatically expressed: see Gn. On this reading, it makes sense to say that the failed ascent of Bk. The verse immediately preceding, Jn. Christianizing what happened ex post facto?
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He is at least explaining it in Christian terms. Courcelle, Recherches n2 , finds parallels in both Plotinus 1. For A. See on This phrase is the focus of an important essay on the nature of mystical knowledge in A. Blanchard, RA 2 , ; it has also received attention for its rhetorical gradatio in a delightful notice by E. Dutoit, Augustinus 13 , See on 3.
Augustine's Confessions Cambridge, Mass. Plotinus 5. See also the close, but not identical, expression at 7. The word evokes a remarkable range of parallel texts see du Roy 77 , including Ambrosian antecedents: e. Testard refers to Cic. These next texts all represent the difficulty of approach, the likelihood of being repelled, and the need for moral purification if the approach is to be more or less successful.
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The verbal parallels among these texts are numerous; only those are highlighted that reflect the present text more or less directly. The possibility of ascent was one A. The difficulty of ascent and the impossibility of persevering in the vision to which it led were scarcely a surprise to A.
Both the Platonic tradition and A. More pertinently, that relapse is an essential feature of the narrative of what is by all agreed to be the most satisfactory mystical ascent of conf. Such a shudder is not necessarily a pious emotion: Jas. Perler, Unterwegs zur Einheit Festschrift H. Stirnimann: Freiburg [Schweiz], , , attempts to root this phrase in Plotinian and Christian texts; the results are not decisive for this phrase, but are of wider interest. See Lk. BA The formula comes from Plotinus 1.
As BA For regio in conf. There are no immediate biblical parallels beyond the prodigal passage in Luke, but Mayer, Zeichen 1. With a link to the second person of the trinity, we can see again the appositeness of lib. This expression has evoked a vast literature: parallels are noted, inter alia, at Athanasius de incarnatione verbi Thierry, Bernard of Clairvaux; further esp.
Other studies include A. Podechard Lyon, , ; E. The garden scene 8. For similar direct discourse attributed to God, see on 6. The response given is put carefully in Christian terms. The echo says concisely that A. What he has sought in Bk.
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Note as well that the words are specific, earthly words, not ineffabilia verba 2 Cor. Another forty passages are listed by E. Few antedate conf. At civ. The verse is inextricably linked with many other topics, especially that of divine immutability; in A. Augustine: Being and Nothingness [New York, ]. The ontology of Exod. If we take 7. A right understanding of scripture and a new conception of God, culminating in the discovery of the platonicorum libri , made possible the attempted ascent; now a right understanding of the goodness of created things hence an answer to the last of the Manichean questions [ 3.
In the absence of circumstantial narrative, it is safer to take this whole development from 7. A favorite verse, echoed in conf. This text marks an important difference between the visions of 7. For the association with Wisd. Ambrose, Isaac 8. These paragraphs between the two ascents of 7. There are no citations from here through 7. See also Plotinus 1. Chadwick, Boethius [Oxford, ], Chadwick, Augustine Oxford, , instancing Plotinus 1.
After his conversion Augustine sought to correct Plotinus' mistakes. For this Platonic doctrine positively contrasted to the Manichean teaching, see civ. The argument that evil was nothing was not new to A. The idea appears as well in Cic. Thirty-five years after Milan, A. The verb, fairly common in Bks. The passage from mor.
The only other substantial text earlier than conf. Sirach By contrast to 7. We are shown how A. See Ps. The reversal of order of citation from Ps. Its classic formulation in A. Here 7. This paragraph contains elements of a review of the development of A. For a study of Bk. Both are explanations of the presence of evil in the world designed in the first instance to protect the innocence of God.
Their proximity is one explanation for the appeal of the latter to A. But of course if Christ is the manus dei see on De Marchi needlessly emends to veritatem. Here he seems to be suggesting what is similarly implicit at 7. Apart from the doctrinal substance of the view here of matter and evil, the form of the argument marks a characteristic feature of all A.
The fault is no longer thought to be in the world that he contemplates but in the eye with which he contemplates it.
This view was implicit in his interpretation of earlier stages of his development esp. His inability to see the complete logical coherence of an argument is no longer in itself a reason not to accept the argument. This is a conversion in some ways--he does not after all change the essentials of his view of the world snakes and worms are still repugnant to him ; but he changes his view about his own view of the world, and that is not a small thing.
Is there a Porphyrian citation here? Unlikely, but there has been discussion: see du Roy 84n3. Years later, he expressed the thought common among the Platonists themselves that a more enduring vision might be possible. Another late and optimistic for others text is ep. Already at Cassiciacum, A. Mystical adepts agree that their experience is impossible to describe adequately; one would think that to describe someone else's mystical experience would be a fortiori more difficult, but few ever act that way.
We speak of these things with a confidence that glosses over serious epistemological difficulties, and those difficulties are doubled here. If it is difficult for us to know what Plotinus' or A. We are reduced to comparing texts, but texts that are always written and read with reference to an ineffable reality presumably lying beyond them. But even that is rendered more difficult here, since whatever A. This text permits the conclusion that it was written by someone who thought he was reporting an experience that was congruent to that reported in Plotinus' texts.
C'est ainsi que compose Augustin. Again, the initiative is from outside and above. Juxtaposed with 1 Cor. The text is not specially favored by other church fathers. See on 2. The following list schematizes the present text and gives in brackets references and quotations to quant. O'Daly , arguing for neo-Platonic influence. See on 9. See also sol. True being is the decisive argument against the Manichees, as at sol. What happened at Milan was not the beatific vision; this was not corruptibility putting on incorruption in any real sense: but as against what is reported at 7.
The inability to fix his vision there is, we know from other texts, the result of his mortality and weakness and sin, but he does not insist on that here there is no echo of Rom. He means to convey thanksgiving for what he was granted, and indirect high praise of Plotinus.
The next paragraph turns to the search for strength, and contains within its opening sentence the Christological key to the search. It is not that he discovered that the Plotinian method did not work that is Courcelle's position in essence ; he discovered that it did work, and that it was not enough. Something more is required: see civ. He had a rude knowledge early on 1. We have been prepared for this since 7. Here readers will differ, but there is nothing to suggest that he came to this position expressis verbis at any time before writing conf.
What happened in was thus something like this: first reading the platonicorum libri , then a period of enthusiasm at his discoveries, then disillusionment that his discoveries had not brought him to the goal he had sought, then anxious deliberation culminating in the garden scene of a moral and sacramental nature over the question whether he should present himself for baptism. In retrospect, and as a theological interpretation, he sees that what was lacking to him after reading the platonicorum libri was the incarnate Christ; he recalls that it was Paul he read, and Simplicianus and others with whom he spoke, and he interprets the whole movement from there until his baptism as the addition of Christ now accurately perceived to his beliefs and to his life.
In favor of this reading, the incarnation had been part of his thoughts at Cassiciacum. O'Meara, Dominican Stud. For the ascent to God hinging on incarnation see already 4. One early text holding that a correct doctrine of the incarnation is linked to sacramental initiation is ep. The presentation of this difficulty helps us measure for the intensity of A. The perplexities A. Theological discussion of A. Geerlings, Christus Exemplum Mainz, --for Christ as exemplum, , cf. Studer, RA 19 , Though Courcelle, Ricerche di stor.
The unacceptability of this concept to non-Christians: civ. Insofar as A. The 1 Tim. When does A. Within the narrative of conf. There is a decided progression and recursion in the movement of conf. Also at The daring terminology underlines the importance of kenosis from Phil. Aland, Pietas Festschrift B.
Beatrice, in a wide-ranging article on the interpretation of Gn. Bianchi, ed. For the issues and positions at stake here, see agon. For our purposes the relevant texts are: agon. The view A. This will happen in Bk. Right doctrine is a necessary condition for right moral conduct and acquisition of salvation. See civ. Here it is impossible to read conf. He does not here cite the further position mentioned in retr. Two cultured contemplators of Christianity come into view in A.
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Longinianus date of these letters uncertain, but just perhaps roughly contemporary with conf. Is Longinianus perhaps a ringer? He certainly looks very like the A. Of much less interest are the objections of Volusianus, by V. This seems to rule out so BA Courcelle, Ricerche di stor. But Courcelle insisted that this passage shows that the Philosophy from Oracles of Porphyry was one of the platonicorum libri that A. See, e. Ideally, reason and philosophy should suffice, but in practice incarnation and revelation are necessary.
Alypius autem : A. There has been confusion on the interpretation of this passage see Courcelle and O'Connell cited below , but the gist of the paragraph is that A. The rectification of those misunderstandings is attested by div. But the pattern was not exclusively his; they make convenient whipping boys for Ambrose as well, and Ambrosiaster, while making no mention of Apollinarism, attacks the Photinians eight times in his Pauline commentaries, several times in conjunction with the Manichees. O'Connell's attempt to postpone the date of A. The link to Arianism is also made at haer.
The likeliest vehicle for a clarification of Alypius' views was Amb. For the clarification that Alypius was not himself Apollinarian, but objected to what he thought was Apollinarian in orthodoxy, see R. Au contraire, Alypius,. Apollinaris is a figure of greater importance in the history of Christology than Photinus; the classic study was H. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition London, , ; the most recent full-length study is E. Kannengiesser, Rech. A brief summary of A. The influence of Platonism and Porphyry in particular on the formation of those views is debatable and debated in the wake of Courcelle, Riv.
Photinus of Sirmium deposed as bishop there and exiled in , and condemned at various councils after: hence also a recent controversy doubted the pre-existent Christ and held that the Christ first existed in the virgin's womb ep. Note esp. In the present passage A. That would seem to rule out direct contact with unmitigated Porphyrianism. Ambrose opposed Photinians by name in his in Luc. David alt. A thought experiment is conducted at bapt. The thought that he might have been a candidate himself would have made him an attentive listener if Amb.
The thought experiment goes on to imagine a third candidate, knowingly Photinian but accepting baptism for worldly gain that good marriage, that promising career--perhaps a governorship [ 6. The later A. Truth is so fragile, so hemmed in by misreadings, that great precautions need be taken. The pluralism that these sects attest is the normal form of religious life in antiquity: it is only the textual, Christian view that holds that these divagations must be reduced to order.
The incarnation remains a touchstone of orthodoxy through A. The verbal echoes bind together chapters in a single episode without narrative:. Caritas I needed, but found it not there, nor would I, such is the distinction between praesumptio at whose dangerous apex I now stood: so close is terrible failure in this search to complete success and confessio which is what I learned to do in those days, and what I do now in this book.
Courcelle's reading Les Confessions 65 comes close to the truth, but blurs the line between what A. He thought he was on the straight path to orthodox Christian truth; it is only in retrospect that he saw that he was not. He did not think he had become a Plotinian sage: he thought he had become a Christian sine parietibus 8. This is confirmed by c. A distinction is suggested in response to Ps. For anti-Platonic contexts, cf. The word is not, however, a sign of anti-Porphyrian Tendenz as O'Meara, Porphyry's Philosophy from Oracles in Augustine [Paris, ], , thinks ; Porphyry is merely a good example of the kind of person against whom A.
Hensellek Anzeiger Akad. Wien , and , 79 , emphasizes cases where the verb and adj. We must make the effort of imagination to give this line its life. At every stage in his life Augustine had been a busy propagator of his views of the moment; he does not change now. The man who once made converts for Manicheism now goes about buttonholing friend and acquaintance with his great news, his version of Christianity. The remarkable thing about the change that comes over him after the garden scene is that he finally shuts up, chatters only to God, and heads for the hills.
The exchange here of one form of multiloquium for another is change, at least. The image of the patria has links to the counter-image of the regio dissimilitudinis under Plotinian and Ambrosian influences see Plot. The link to incarnational theology is clear: cf. The image makes its appeal to A. For a sense of the word in A. Nectarius of Calama writing to A.
Henry, La vision d'Ostie Paris, , , argues that since the word does not much occur before Augustine, it must therefore be from Plotinus. TLL 2. The adjective occurs 19x in A. The consistent sense is of undirected human activity, in every case but one leading to a bad goal; the one exception 2. Little attention has been paid to one claim Paul had on A. The two chapters are linked by the theme of mystic vision at en. Such vision, and nothing neo-Platonic, is what A. It is true that A. The difficulty of reconciling the two testaments mentioned a few words further on is a problem that more naturally arises in looking at the gospels as well as Paul, and in looking at the OT along with the NT.
As du Roy observes, from scripture the Cassiciacum dialogues cite only the Gospels and Paul. Wien , ; cf. The role of Paul in his conversion is recalled by c. Courcelle, Recherches n1 , attempts to construct a schedule for A. He infers from 8. The first sentence of the present paragraph is a summary, omitting much but in some sense complete, of all the events that will be narrated in impressionistic detail in Bk.
There is thus no anachronism in using Paul here, and at the other end, there is no reason to think that A. See note preceding 8. Paul is mentioned by name; for the pattern of names of living persons in conf. On Paul in A. Fredriksen, Augustine on Romans Chico, Cal. Boomerangs termed "throwsticks" for hunting larger prey, such as kangaroo, were used for small prey as well.
These throwsticks fly in a nearly straight path when thrown horizontally and are heavy enough to take down a kangaroo on impact to the legs or knees. For hunting emu, the throwstick is thrown toward the neck, breaking it. A woomera is an Australian Aboriginal spear-throwing device usually used for larger prey or when there is a greater distance to be overcome.
It has been described as "the most efficient spear-throwing device ever". Similar to an atlatl, it enables a spear to travel much further than by arm strength alone. It is very much like an extension of the arm, enabling the spear to travel at a greater speed and force than what would normally be attainable unaided. It is still used today in some remote areas of Australia. As with spears and boomerangs, woomera were traditionally only used by men. Some woomeras, especially those used in the Central and Western Australian deserts, were multi-purpose tools. Often shaped like long narrow bowls, they could be used for carrying water-soaked vegetable matter which could later be sucked for its moisture, but wouldn't spill as well as small food items such as little lizards or seeds.
Many woomeras had a sharp stone cutting edge attached to the end of the handle with black gum from the spinifex plant.
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This sharp tool had many uses — and was commonly used for cutting up game or other food, cutting wood, and so on. The woomera could be used as a shield for protection against spears and boomerangs. Some boomerangs were deliberately made with a hook at one end designed to catch onto the edge of a woomera or shield, which then caused the boomerang to swivel around and hit the enemy. The woomera was traditionally decorated with incised or painted designs which gave a good indication of the owner's tribal or clan group, giving one their sense of identity or "being".
A waddy, nulla nulla or hunting stick is an Australian Aboriginal war club. A waddy is a heavy club constructed of carved timber. Waddies have been used in hand to hand combat, and were capable of splitting a shield, and killing or stunning food. In addition to this they could be employed as a projectile as well as used to make fire and make ochre. They found further use in punishing those who broke Aboriginal law. They were made by both men and women and could be painted or left unpainted.
Their construction varied from tribe to tribe, but they were generally about one metre in length and sometimes had a stone head attached with bees wax and string. They were made from where a branch met the tree, or from a young tree pulled up with its roots from the ground. Originally, the word waddy referred to a tree, or any piece of wood, as well as a verb meaning to 'beat up or kill with a club'. A corroboree is a ceremonial meeting of Australian Aborigines.
The word was coined by the European settlers of Australia in imitation of the Aboriginal word caribberie. At a corroboree Aborigines interact with the Dreamtime through dance, music and costume. Many ceremonies act out events from the Dreamtime. Many of the ceremonies are sacred and people from outside a community are not permitted to participate or watch.
In the northwest of Australia, corroboree is a generic word to define theatrical practices as different from ceremony. Whether it be public or private, ceremony is for invited guests. There are other generic words to describe traditional public performances: juju and kobbakobba for example. In the Pilbara, corroborees are yanda or jalarra.
Across the Kimberley the word junba is often used to refer to a range of traditional performances and ceremionies. Corroboree and ceremony are strongly connected but different. In the s Adolphus Elkin wrote of a public pan-Aboriginal dancing "tradition of individual gifts, skill, and ownership" as distinct from the customary practices of appropriate elders guiding initiation and other ritual practices. Corroborees are open performances in which everyone may participate taking into consideration that the songs and dances are highly structured requiring a great deal of knowledge and skill to perform.
Corroboree is a generic word to explain different genres of performance which in the northwest of Australia include balga, wangga, lirrga, junba, ilma and many more. Throughout Australia the word corroboree embraces songs, dances, rallies and meetings of various kinds. In the past a corroboree has been inclusive of sporting events and other forms of skill display.
It is an appropriated English word that has been reappropriated to explain a practice that is different to ceremony and more widely inclusive than theatre or opera. Aboriginal people developed unique instruments and folk styles. The didgeridoo is commonly considered the national instrument of Aboriginal people, and it is claimed to be the world's oldest wind instrument.
However, it was traditionally only played by Arnhem Land people, such as the Yolngu, and then only by the men. It has possibly been used by the people of the Kakadu region for years. Clap sticks are probably the more ubiquitous musical instrument, especially because they help maintain the rhythm for the song. Marn Grook also spelt marngrook , literally meaning "Game ball", is the collective name given to a number of traditional Indigenous Australian ball games believed to have been played at gatherings and celebrations of up to 50 players.
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The earliest accounts, mostly from the colonial Victorian explorers and settlers, date back to just prior to the Victorian gold rush in the mid s, but the game is suspected to have been played for many thousands of years. This connection justifies the claim of Australian Rules Football as being one of the oldest games still played today, albeit evolved. Marn Grook is especially notable as it is claimed by some to have had an influence on the modern game of Australian rules football, most notably in the catching of the kicked ball the mark in Australian football and, in particular, high jumping the spectacular mark in Australian football exhibited by the players of both games.
The Australian Rules game between Scotch College and Melbourne Grammar School, which is believed by most historians to have been the first Australian Rules game, included a number of the features of Marn Grook; in particular, the large number of players and the large area of play the game had goals that were metres apart.
Both of these features disappeared from Australian Rules after the first rules were drawn up in A Bora is the name given both to an initiation ceremony, and to the site on which the initiation is performed. At such a site, young boys are transformed into men. The initiation ceremony differs from culture to culture, but often involves circumcision and scarification, and may also involve the removal of a tooth or part of a finger. The ceremony, and the process leading up to it, involves the learning of sacred songs, stories, dances, and traditional lore.
Many different clans will assemble to participate in an initiation ceremony. The word Bora was originally from South-East Australia, but is now often used throughout Australia to describe an initiation site or ceremony. It is called a Burbung in the language of the Darkinjung, to the North of Sydney. The name is said to come from that of the belt worn by initiated men. The appearance of the site varies from one culture to another, but it is often associated with stone arrangements, rock engravings, or other art works.
Women are generally prohibited from entering a bora. In the Sydney region, large Earth mounds were made, shaped as long bands or simple circles. Sometimes the boys would have to pass along a path marked on the ground representing the transition from childhood to manhood, and this path might be marked by a stone arrangement or by footsteps, or mundoes, cut into the rock. In other areas of South-East Australia, a Bora site might consist of two circles of stones, and the boys would start the ceremony in the larger, public, one, and end it in the other, smaller, one, to which only initiated men are admitted.
Bora rings, found in South-East Australia, are circles of foot-hardened earth surrounded by raised embankments. They were generally constructed in pairs although some sites have three , with a bigger circle about 22 metres in diameter and a smaller one of about 14 metres. The rings are joined by a sacred walkway. The bullroarer is an ancient ritual musical instrument and means of communicating over extended distances.
Along with the didgeridoo, it is prominent technology among Australian Aborigines, used in ceremony across the continent. Bullroarers have accompanied the didgeridoos in initiation ceremonies and in burials to ward off evil spirits, bad tidings, and even women and children. They are used in men's initiation ceremonies and the sound they produced is considered by some Indigenous cultures to represent the sound of the Rainbow Serpent. In the cultures of South-East Australia, the sound of the bullroarer is the voice of Daramulan, and a successful bullroarer can only be made if it has been cut from a tree containing his spirit.
There are many "types" of Aboriginal art, but the two most famous types appear to be bark painting and rock art. Bark painting is an Australian Aboriginal art-form which is done on the interior strip of a tree bark. Traditionally, bark paintings were produced for instructional and ceremonial purposes and were transient objects. Today, they are keenly sought after by collectors and public arts institutions.
The material of choice is the bark from Stringybark Eucalyptus tetradonta. The bark chosen must be free of knots and other blemishes. It is best cut from the tree in the wet season when the sap is rising. Two horizontal slices and a single vertical slice are made into the tree, and the bark is then carefully peeled off with the aid of a sharpened tool. Only the inner smooth bark is kept and placed in a fire. After heating in the fire, the bark is flattened under foot and weighted with stones or logs to dry flat.
The 'canvas' is then ready to paint upon. Earth pigments - or ochres - in red, yellow and black are used and are mineral oxides of iron and manganese. White pipeclay, or calcium carbonate, is also used. Ochres may be fixed with a binder such as PVA glue, or in the old days, with the sap or juice of plants such as orchid bulbs. After the painting is completed, the bark is splinted at either end to keep the painting flat. A fixative, traditionally orchid juice, is added over the top. The sacred designs on which bark paintings are based included abstract patterns and designs such as cross-hatching in particular colours which identify a clan, and also often contain elements of the Eternal Dreamtime.
Sometimes the elements of a story are obvious - such as those depicting men or animals - but sometimes the elements are symbolic. What appears to the tourist as a series of wavy lines punctuated by dots may actually be telling a complex Dreaming story describing the path of a creator spirit, and the events that happened along the way. An uninitiated man or woman is only allowed to paint outside stories - in other words, the sort of story that might be told to a child.
An initiated man can paint an inside story, which is itself restricted knowledge. Thus a painting may be displayed in an exhibition, or put up for sale, but the artist, although having the right to paint the story, does not have the right to tell the story to another person. Alternatively, the story behind the painting may be one which cannot be told to an uninitiated person.
More simple designs of straight lines, circles and spirals, are also common, and in many cases are thought to be the origins of some forms of contemporary Aboriginal Art. A particular type of Aboriginal painting, known as the Bradshaws, appears on caves in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. They are named after the European pastoralist, Joseph Bradshaw, who first reported them in To Aboriginal people of the region they are known as Gwion Gwion. Traditional Aboriginal art is composed of organic colours and materials, but modern artists often use synthetic paints when creating aboriginal styles.
British colonisation of Australia began in Sydney in The most immediate consequence of British settlement — within weeks of the first colonists' arrival — was a wave of European epidemic diseases such as chickenpox, smallpox, influenza and measles, which spread in advance of the frontier of settlement. The worst-hit communities were the ones with the greatest population densities, where disease could spread more readily.
In the arid centre of the continent, where small communities were spread over a vast area, the population decline was less marked. The second consequence of British settlement was appropriation of land and water resources. The settlers took the view that Indigenous Australians were nomads with no concept of land ownership, who could be driven off land wanted for farming or grazing and who would be just as happy somewhere else. In fact the loss of traditional lands, food sources and water resources was usually fatal, particularly to communities already weakened by disease.
Additionally, Indigenous Australians groups had a deep spiritual and cultural connection to the land, so that in being forced to move away from traditional areas, cultural and spiritual practices necessary to the cohesion and well-being of the group could not be maintained. Settlers also brought alcohol, opium and tobacco, and substance abuse has remained a chronic problem for indigenous communities ever since.
Entire communities in the moderately fertile southern part of the continent simply vanished without trace, often before European settlers arrived or recorded their existence. As the European pastoral industries developed, several economic changes came about. The appropriation of prime land and the spread of European livestock over vast areas made a traditional indigenous lifestyle less viable, but also provided a ready alternative supply of fresh meat for those prepared to incur the settlers' anger by hunting livestock. The impact of disease and the settlers' industries had a profound impact on the Indigenous Australians' way of life.
With the exception of a few in the remote interior, all surviving indigenous communities gradually became dependent on the settler population for their livelihood. In south-eastern Australia, during the s, large numbers of white pastoral workers deserted employment on stations for the Australian goldrushes. Indigenous women, men and children became a significant source of labour.
Most indigenous labour was unpaid, instead indigenous workers received rations in the form of food, clothing and other basic necessities. In the later 19th century, settlers made their way north and into the interior, appropriating small but vital parts of the land for their own exclusive use waterholes and soaks in particular , and introducing sheep, rabbits and cattle, all three of which ate out previously fertile areas and degraded the ability of the land to carry the native animals that were vital to indigenous economies. Indigenous hunters would often spear sheep and cattle, incurring the wrath of graziers, after they replaced the native animals as a food source.
As large sheep and cattle stations came to dominate northern Australia, indigenous workers were quickly recruited. Several other outback industries, notably pearling, also employed Aboriginal workers.